IT Outsourcing

Coding Against Cyber Threats: Standardizing Security in Enterprise Applications

9 Nov 202336 min read

Eryk Libelt

Eryk Libelt

Coding Against Cyber Threats: Standardizing Security in Enterprise Applications

With cyber threats escalating, enterprise software is increasingly targeted, leading to costly data breaches — averaging $3.86 million in damages in 2020. Proactive and holistic security strategies are crucial for navigating these challenges. This article explores secure coding, the importance of security audits, and the need for a security-centric culture in development. Insights from the '2023-2028 Polish Cybersecurity Report' complement these topics, offering valuable strategies against the current cybersecurity threats facing enterprises globally. By adopting these approaches, companies can strengthen their defences and protect against vulnerabilities.

Safeguarding the Enterprise: The Imperative of Secure Coding

In today's digital era, where enterprises rely heavily on applications to drive operations, safeguarding these systems becomes paramount. As the digital landscape expands, so does the playground for cybercriminals. Recent statistics have underscored the astronomical costs of security breaches—financial damage and reputational harm. For instance, consider incidents like the infamous Heartbleed bug, rooted in a coding error that exposed vast amounts of private data, affecting numerous businesses and individuals worldwide.

Or the SQL injection attacks that exploit coding vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access to databases, leading to potential data theft or manipulation. These incidents are stark reminders that coding errors can be the weak link, paving the way for large-scale breaches. Consequently, secure coding is a technical necessity and a critical component of enterprise risk management. By adopting and standardizing certain coding practices, businesses fortify their defenses against cyber threats and position themselves as trustworthy stewards of customer and stakeholder data. The message is clear: in the battle against cyber threats, secure coding is an enterprise's shield and sword.

The Enterprise Threatscape: Deciphering the Dangers

In the rapidly digitizing world of 2023, enterprises face a multifaceted cyber threat landscape. The increasing complexity of business applications and the vast amount of data they store are fertile grounds for cybercriminals. Sophisticated attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), ransomware, and DDoS attacks, are becoming commonplace, often exploiting code vulnerabilities in enterprise applications.

High-Profile Cyber Attacks

A case in point is the major UK firm, Capita, which in March 2023 fell victim to a significant ransomware attack, severely disrupting their services and client communications​​. Similarly, the prominent newspaper, The Guardian, was at the receiving end of a cyber onslaught between December 2022 and January 2023. A well-crafted phishing campaign tricked an employee, compromising sensitive staff data, including salaries and passport details​.

Widespread Security Breaches

But the threats aren't limited to large corporations. In February, around 14,000 WordPress sites were compromised through infected adverts, redirecting unsuspecting users to counterfeit pages. These attacks aimed to leverage black hat SEO techniques, enhancing the cybercriminal's digital footprint​​. Even the television network Virgin Media, and the widely-used platform Reddit, weren't spared, with both facing significant breaches in February, underscoring the pervasive nature of these threats​​.

Global Cybersecurity Breakdown 2023

Deloitte's 2023 Cybersecurity Threat Trends Report offers a comprehensive look into this evolving threatscape. Their findings highlight emerging and highly active threat actors, detailed scorecards for various threat types, and a deep dive into current malware trends. The report emphasizes the importance of a multi-pronged defence strategy, recommending measures for ransomware and DDoS prevention, insider threat mitigation, and email server security​​.

In essence, as cybercriminals continually refine their tactics, enterprises must stay a step ahead. Understanding the prevailing threats and investing in robust defenses will be paramount in safeguarding assets and reputation in this digital age.

The Cornerstones of Enterprise Application Security: Secure Coding Essentials

In the intricate tapestry of enterprise application security, secure coding emerges as one of the foundational threads. By adhering to secure coding principles, organizations can fortify their digital assets against various threats. Let's delve into some of the cardinal principles of secure coding:

1. Input Validation

At its core, input validation ensures that any data entered into an application is accurate and safe. For instance, when users register on a website, ensuring that an email field contains a valid email format is a basic form of input validation. But it goes deeper—preventing malicious code injections or scripts in text fields is crucial. Failing to validate inputs can expose systems to SQL injection or Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks.

  • Impact: Ensures data integrity and thwarts a majority of injection attacks.
  • Pitfalls to Avoid: Assuming user input is trustworthy by default; not validating input both on the client and server sides.

2. Error Handling

Proper error handling can differentiate between minor hiccups and full-blown security breaches. Revealing too much information in an error message, for instance, can give attackers insights into the system's architecture or potential vulnerabilities. Instead of displaying detailed system errors, applications should show generic error messages to the users while logging the specifics for the developers.

  • Impact: Prevents attackers from gaining insights into the system's inner workings.
  • Pitfalls to Avoid: Displaying detailed system or database errors to end-users; not logging errors for review.

3. Secure Communication Protocols

With the rise of man-in-the-middle attacks and eavesdropping, secure communication protocols like HTTPS (over HTTP) or SFTP (over FTP) have never been more critical. These protocols encrypt data during transit, ensuring that the information remains unintelligible even if intercepted.

  • Impact: Protects sensitive data during transit, maintaining confidentiality and integrity.
  • Pitfalls to Avoid: Using outdated or weak encryption protocols; not regularly updating SSL/TLS certificates.

While these cornerstones lay the groundwork for secure coding, the landscape is ever-evolving. Adherence to these principles, combined with continuous learning and adaptation, will ensure that enterprise applications remain resilient in the face of emerging cyber threats. By recognizing the impact of each principle and sidestepping common pitfalls, organizations can bolster their defenses and uphold the trust of their stakeholders.

Codifying Security in the Enterprise: Adhering to Industry Standards

In the vast world of enterprise coding practices, the importance of security cannot be overstated. However, security isn't just about best intentions—it's about adhering to recognized, robust standards meticulously crafted over time. Let's examine a few pivotal standards and understand their relevance:

OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project)

A cornerstone in the realm of web application security, OWASP offers the famed Top Ten list—a compilation of the most critical web application vulnerabilities. By referencing this list, enterprises can be aware of the most prevalent risks and implement coding practices that mitigate these vulnerabilities.

  • Benefits: Provides a focused approach to tackle the most significant threats in web applications.
  • Tailoring for Enterprises: While the Top Ten list is generic, enterprises can prioritize based on their specific infrastructure and threat landscape.

SANS (SysAdmin, Audit, Network, and Security)

Best known for its Critical Security Controls—a set of recommended actions to counteract the most pervasive attacks. SANS provides a comprehensive blueprint from continuous vulnerability assessment to data recovery capabilities.

  • Benefits: A holistic security approach addressing preventive and reactive measures.
  • Tailoring for Enterprises: Organizations can sequence the controls based on their unique risk profile and operational environment.

ISO/IEC 27001

An international standard that emphasizes establishing, implementing, and maintaining an information security management system (ISMS). It underscores the importance of risk management and ensures that security measures are tailored to the distinct risks faced by an organization.

  • Benefits: Achieving ISO/IEC 27001 certification signals a commitment to information security, fostering stakeholder trust.
  • Tailoring for Enterprises: The standard's risk-oriented approach allows organizations to design an ISMS that aligns with their specific business objectives and threat landscape.

Implementing these standards comes with a set of challenges. They demand organizational commitment, resource allocation, and continuous monitoring and improvement. Moreover, a one-size-fits-all approach can be counterproductive. Adapting these standards to the organization's unique needs is vital, ensuring relevance and effectiveness.

Adhering to industry standards isn't just about compliance—it's about fostering a culture of security. While these frameworks provide the roadmap, the journey involves continuous adaptation, learning, and commitment to safeguarding the organization's digital assets and reputation.

The Keystone of Enterprise Security: Robust Authentication Mechanisms

In the vast enterprise security architecture, if there were a keystone—a central component that holds the entire structure together—it would undeniably be authentication. Ensuring that users are who they say they are is a foundational principle in safeguarding assets. Here's an exploration of prominent authentication techniques:

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

Beyond the traditional username and password, MFA requires multiple forms of verification—something the user knows (password), something the user has (a token or phone), and something the user is (biometrics).

  • Role in Enterprise Security: MFA significantly reduces the risk of unauthorized access, even if login credentials are compromised.
  • Best Practices: Encourage regular updating of secondary authentication methods and educate users about the importance of MFA in security.


A modern authentication standard used predominantly for token-based authentication. Instead of sharing passwords, applications request tokens from an authorization server.

  • Role in Enterprise Security: OAuth provides granular access control, allowing users to specify which information the application can access, thereby enhancing privacy and security.
  • Best Practices: Always use the latest version of OAuth and ensure secure transmission of tokens to prevent interception.

Certificate-Based Authentication

Here, clients validate their identities using digital certificates. These certificates, issued by a Certificate Authority (CA), are cryptographic proof of the client's identity.

  • Role in Enterprise Security: Certificate-based authentication eliminates the vulnerabilities of password-based systems, providing a more secure authentication mechanism.
  • Best Practices: Regularly update and manage the certificate lifecycle to ensure only valid certificates are in use.

Comparing these methods, while MFA offers layered security, its strength lies in its multiple verification steps. OAuth, being token-based, adds an abstraction layer, ensuring actual credentials aren't transmitted. On the other hand, certificate-based authentication offers robust security by leveraging cryptographic techniques, making impersonation challenging.

However, an authentication method should align with the organization's needs, infrastructure, and perceived threats. Remembering that authentication is just one facet of security is vital. While it's a critical component, a holistic security approach necessitates robust authorization, data integrity, and confidentiality mechanisms with authentication.

In conclusion, robust authentication mechanisms will remain pivotal in ensuring security as enterprises evolve and the digital landscape expands. Organizations can fortify their first line of defense against potential cyber threats by understanding, adapting, and implementing these techniques.

Gatekeeping Your Enterprise Data: Advanced Authorization Strategies

As enterprises grow, so do their data repositories and the number of stakeholders needing access. While authentication ensures users are who they claim to be, authorization determines what they can do once inside the system. Implementing robust authorization strategies is paramount in ensuring that sensitive data remains in the right hands.

RBAC (Role-Based Access Control)

This is one of the most widely adopted authorization strategies. In RBAC, permissions are assigned to specific roles within an organization, and users are then assigned to these roles. For instance, in a banking application, a "Teller" role might have access to account viewing but not to account creation.

  • Importance in Enterprise Applications: RBAC provides a structured way to assign permissions based on job functions. It ensures that users have just the access they need to perform their tasks—no more, no less.
  • Real-World Example: In enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, a 'Finance' role might only have access to budget and expenditure modules, while an 'HR' role can access employee records.

ABAC (Attribute-Based Access Control)

More granular than RBAC, ABAC determines access based on user attributes, environmental conditions, and other contextual factors. An example could be allowing access to a document only to users from a specific department and during office hours.

  • Importance in Enterprise Applications: ABAC offers fine-grained control and can dynamically adjust access based on changing attributes or conditions. This flexibility makes it suitable for complex, evolving enterprise environments.
  • Real-World Example: ABAC can ensure that only project team members using company devices and within a particular geographic location can access specific project documents in cloud storage solutions.

Ensuring Scalability and Maintainability

  • Centralized Management: For RBAC and ABAC, centralizing permission management can simplify the process, especially in large organizations with multiple systems and applications.
  • Regular Audits: Regular access audits can identify outdated permissions, ensuring that former employees or shifted roles don't retain unnecessary access.

Automated Provisioning and Deprovisioning: Automating the process of granting and revoking access based on role changes or attribute changes can enhance security and reduce administrative overhead.

In essence, while data is a valuable asset, it's also a vulnerability if not adequately gatekept. When implemented with diligence and foresight, authorization acts as a sentinel, ensuring that while the right people get the access they need, potential threats are kept at bay. As enterprises continue to scale, embracing advanced authorization strategies will be crucial in safeguarding their data repositories.

Input and Output: The Enterprise Application's First Line of Defense

In the labyrinth of enterprise application security, input and output gates play a pivotal role. They serve as the entry and exit points for data, acting as the first line of defense against potential threats. Implementing robust input validation and output encoding strategies ensures these gates remain impenetrable.

Input Validation

This strategy ensures that data users enter or receive from other sources is accurate and benign. Proper validation acts as a shield, preventing malicious data from infiltrating the system.

  • Why It Matters: Input forms the foundation upon which processes are executed. Malformed or malicious input can lead to system errors, data corruption, or breaches. For instance, unsanitized input can lead to SQL injection attacks where attackers manipulate database queries.
  • Implementation: Adopt a whitelist approach, allowing only specific, known-good input. Reject or sanitize inputs containing scripts, special characters, or potentially harmful content. When dealing with SQL queries, use prepared statements to prevent injection attacks.

Output Encoding:

Once data is ingested and processed, how it's relayed to the user or other systems is paramount. Output encoding ensures that this data is rendered safely, preventing any part of it from being executed unintentionally.

  • Why It Matters: Attackers can exploit poorly encoded outputs to deliver malicious payloads or scripts. A typical example is Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), where attackers embed malicious scripts in web pages, potentially compromising end-user devices or data.
  • Implementation: Treat all data being output as potentially harmful, irrespective of its source. Use encoding libraries or frameworks tailored to the specific output context, ensuring executable code is rendered harmless.

Risks and Secure Practices:

  • Injection Attacks: Among the most prevalent risks, these attacks exploit unsanitized input. For example, failing to validate input in a search box can allow attackers to manipulate and extract database information.
    • Secure Practice: Beyond rigorous input validation, use parameterized queries to safeguard against SQL injections.
    • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): A threat where malicious scripts are injected into web content and executed by another user's browser.
  • Secure Practice: Implement strict input validation protocols and use Content Security Policy (CSP) headers to prevent unauthorized script execution.

In essence, an enterprise application's input and output channels are its most vulnerable touchpoints. By recognizing their importance and implementing rigorous validation and encoding mechanisms, organizations can effectively shield themselves from many cyber threats, ensuring their operations remain fluid and secure.

Database Security: The Enterprise's Data Fortress

In the digital stronghold of an enterprise, the database stands as the central repository, a veritable treasure trove of information. However, with its immense value, it also becomes a prime target for cyber threats. Ensuring its security is paramount for business continuity and maintaining stakeholder trust.


Encrypting the data stored in databases ensures that even in a breach, the information remains unintelligible to unauthorized parties.

  • Common Vulnerability: Data breaches often aim to extract raw data. If the data is unencrypted, it can be immediately accessed, leading to information theft.
  • Effective Strategy: Employ encryption both at rest and in transit. While at-rest encryption safeguards stored data, in-transit encryption (using protocols like TLS) ensures data remains secure during communication between the database and application.

Access Controls

Restricting who can access the database and what they can do once inside is fundamental. Role-based access controls (RBAC) can ensure that users only have the permissions necessary for their job functions.

  • Common Vulnerability: Unauthorized or overly broad access can lead to data manipulation or extraction.
  • Effective Strategy: Regularly review and update access permissions. Implement multi-factor authentication for database access and ensure logging of all database interactions for audit purposes.

Secure Query Practices

How applications interact with databases can be a source of vulnerabilities. SQL injections, where malicious SQL code is inserted into a query, are prime examples.

  • Common Vulnerability: Applications not validating or sanitizing inputs can be tricked into executing malicious queries.
  • Effective Strategy: Use Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) tools, which act as an intermediary layer between the application and the database, translating application requests into secure database queries. ORM tools often sanitize inputs by default, reducing the risk of injections.

In conclusion, while databases serve as the foundational pillars of enterprise applications, their security should be considered and considered. It's essential to recognize that securing the database is as crucial as securing the application. By acknowledging common vulnerabilities and adopting a proactive approach to database security, enterprises can transform their databases from mere storage units to fortified data fortresses.

Enterprise File Security: Handling Data with Care

While integral to enterprise applications, file operations can also serve as potential avenues for cyber threats. The uploading, downloading, and storage of files necessitate rigorous security measures to ensure data integrity and protect against malicious intrusions.

  • File Validation: Whenever files are uploaded to a system, validating them is the first line of defense. This process ensures that only legitimate and safe files enter the enterprise ecosystem.
    • Key Aspect: Check the file's metadata, size, type, and content. For instance, an image file shouldn't contain executable code. Implementing a whitelist approach, where only specific file types are accepted, can further bolster security.
    • Mitigating Risks: Employ real-time scanning of uploaded files using antivirus and antimalware tools. This can catch and quarantine malicious files before they integrate into the system.
  • Secure Storage Solutions: Once files are ingested, how they are stored is of paramount importance. Secure storage ensures that files remain confidential, maintain integrity, and are available when needed.
    • Key Aspect: Use encryption both at rest and in transit. File encryption ensures that the data remains unintelligible even if the storage is breached. Regularly back up files to a secure location to ensure data availability.
    • Mitigating Risks: Implement access controls on stored files. As with databases, Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) ensures that only authorized personnel can access specific files based on their job functions.
  • Safe Download Protocols: When files are retrieved or downloaded, ensuring the process is secure and the files haven't been tampered with is crucial.
    • Key Aspect: Use secure transmission protocols like HTTPS. Additionally, implement mechanisms to verify file integrity, such as checksums or digital signatures. This ensures that the file hasn't been altered since it was stored.
    • Mitigating Risks: Provide users with clear guidelines on safe file download practices. Encourage them to verify file sources and avoid downloading files from untrusted or suspicious sources.

In conclusion, while file operations seem straightforward, their security implications are profound. As enterprises continue to handle vast amounts of data in file form, adopting a meticulous and proactive approach to file security becomes not just advisable but imperative. In the digital age, handling data with care translates to safeguarding an organization's assets, reputation, and future.

Silent Alarms: The Nuances of Error Handling and Logging in Enterprise Software

In the intricate world of enterprise software, errors aren't just inevitable; they're informative. Yet, their handling and logging can broadcast vulnerabilities or serve as silent guardians of system integrity.

User-Facing Error Messages

While providing users with detailed error information for transparency is tempting, such candour can be a double-edged sword. Revealing too much can inadvertently guide malicious actors. The best practice for it is to keep messages generic, such as presenting "System error. Please try again later" instead of "Database connection failed." Revealing too much can provide a roadmap for malicious actors, helping them pinpoint vulnerabilities.

Detailed Error Logging

Beneath the surface, where users don't venture, lies the detailed account of system operations. Here, granularity is an ally. The best practice is to retain comprehensive logs in a secure environment, ensuring they're accessible only to those with the right credentials. Such logs offer insights into system health, potential vulnerabilities, and signs of intrusion attempts.

Handling Sensitive Data in Logs

Logs often capture the pulse of system interactions, and sometimes, this pulse includes sensitive data beats. It's always best to mask or hash personal or confidential data. Displaying only the last four digits of a credit card number, for instance, strikes a balance between clarity and security. Even if logs are accessed illegitimately, the critical data remains obfuscated and protected.

In conclusion, error handling and logging in enterprise software is a delicate balance of informative transparency and guarded discretion. When approached with strategy and foresight, errors transform from potential vulnerabilities to silent alarms, safeguarding the enterprise's digital fortress.

Third-Party Code, First-Class Security: Managing External Risks in Enterprise Apps

The modern enterprise application is akin to a mosaic, with each piece representing a different component. Many of these components come from third-party sources, be it libraries, APIs, or other dependencies. While these elements enhance functionality and speed up development, they also introduce potential vulnerabilities.

Vendor Assessment

Before integrating third-party components, it's essential to conduct a thorough vendor assessment. This involves researching the vendor's reputation, scrutinizing their history of security practices, and identifying any known vulnerabilities associated with their products. Trusting a third-party source means ensuring their commitment to security matches your own.

Secure Integration Practices

Integrating third-party elements can significantly determine the application's overall security. Always adhere to best practices for integration. For instance, using secure authentication mechanisms like OAuth can prevent unauthorized access when working with APIs. Similarly, for libraries, techniques like sandboxing can ensure that even if a component is compromised, its potential to harm the more extensive application is contained.

Keeping Dependencies Updated

The software landscape is ever-evolving, with new patches and updates regularly released. It's vital to keep all third-party dependencies updated. Not only do updates often bring new features, but they also rectify known security issues. An outdated component can be a weak link, making the entire application susceptible to attacks.

Handling Discovered Vulnerabilities

No measure is foolproof; vulnerabilities might emerge even in the most reputable third-party components. When such vulnerabilities are identified, it's crucial to have a clear action plan. This could involve temporarily disabling the component, seeking patches, or exploring alternative solutions. Swift, informed action can mitigate potential damage and uphold the application's integrity.

In the grand tapestry of enterprise applications, third-party components are invaluable threads. However, they need to be chosen and managed with care. By judiciously selecting, integrating, updating, and monitoring these components, enterprises can ensure that their applications remain functional and secure.

Proactive Defense: Security Audits and Pen Testing for Enterprise Systems

In enterprise software, a proactive stance towards security isn't just commendable—it's crucial. The ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats necessitates regular checks and validations. This is where the roles of security audits and penetration testing become indispensable, acting as the enterprise's vanguard against vulnerabilities.

Security Audits

Think of these as regular health check-ups for your software. Through systematic evaluations, security audits assess the robustness of an application, identifying potential weaknesses and ensuring compliance with industry standards.

  • Planning and Conduct: Start by defining the scope of the audit. This could range from assessing data handling practices to evaluating user authentication mechanisms. Once the scope is set, auditors review the system's architecture, codebase, and operational practices, drawing upon industry benchmarks and best practices.
  • Integration into CI/CD: Modern software development practices emphasize continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD). Incorporating automated security checks within these pipelines ensures potential vulnerabilities are flagged early, allowing for swift rectification.

Penetration Testing (Pen Testing)

While audits offer a broad overview, pen testing dives deep. Skilled professionals, acting as ethical hackers, attempt to breach the application, simulating real-world attack scenarios.

Benefits: Pen tests offer a tangible assessment of an application's security posture. By uncovering vulnerabilities before actual attackers do, enterprises can fortify their defenses proactively. Moreover, these tests provide invaluable insights into how an actual attack might unfold, enabling better incident response planning.

Integration into Development Lifecycle: Regularly scheduled pen tests should be a staple, especially after significant updates or changes. By integrating these tests into the software development lifecycle, enterprises ensure that security considerations evolve hand-in-hand with the application.

In conclusion, the hypothesis "forewarned is forearmed" holds particularly true for enterprise security. Regular security audits and pen tests uncover vulnerabilities and offer a roadmap for continuous improvement. By embracing these practices, enterprises can transition from a reactive stance to proactive defense, ensuring that their software remains robust and resilient in the face of cyber threats.

Cultivating a Culture of Security: The Enterprise Developer’s Manifesto

In the intricate tapestry of enterprise software, threads of code intertwine seamlessly, orchestrated by the hands of its weavers—the developers. Beyond the syntax and algorithms lies an imperative: a commitment to security. This isn't just about coding securely; it's about fostering an environment where security is intrinsic to every decision every keystroke.

Training Programs

The realm of cybersecurity is dynamic, with threat landscapes evolving continuously. Regular training sessions, workshops, and seminars should be at the heart of a developer's journey. This ensures they're abreast of the latest threats and mitigation techniques and embeds security as second nature. In dissecting past vulnerabilities and breaches, real-world case studies can serve as potent lessons, turning historical missteps into beacons for secure coding.

Security as Part of Performance Metrics

More than merely emphasizing the importance of security is needed; it must be woven into the fabric of performance evaluations. By integrating security benchmarks into performance metrics, developers are incentivized to prioritize them. When recognition and growth are linked to security adherence, every line of code written resonates with the commitment to protect.

Fostering a Proactive Attitude

A truly secure environment thrives on proactivity. Developers should be encouraged to adopt a "security-first" mindset, where potential vulnerabilities are anticipated and thwarted even before they manifest. This ethos, further reinforced through practices like peer reviews, instills a collective sense of responsibility. When each developer dons the hat of a security analyst, the entire software ecosystem benefits.

In the grand narrative of enterprise software, where innovations dazzle and efficiencies drive growth, security stands as the silent guardian. Enterprises can confidently navigate the digital frontier by cultivating a culture steeped in security awareness, where every developer is both a creator and protector. The manifesto is clear and resonant: in the realm of code, security isn't an adjunct; it's an ethos.


Enterprise software is increasingly vulnerable to cyber threats, highlighting the need for strong security practices. This article explored the importance of secure coding, error management, and a security-first mindset among developers. It recommended regular security audits and penetration tests. The human factor is crucial in cybersecurity, and an integrated security approach is essential. Security is a core element of a digital enterprise. To strengthen your software security and develop a security culture, our company can help. Contact us to enhance your cybersecurity.

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Eryk Libelt

Eryk Libelt